the answer to Cancer
by James South MA.
anti-cancer drug Laetrile is one of the most controversial subjects in the
history of medicine. Laetrile's most ardent proponents consider it to be a
natural cancer cure, literally built in to the normal "vitamin
architecture" of mammalian food supplies as the primary natural exogenous
cancer control for humans and animals. They have called Laetrile "vitamin
(1) Laetrile's opponents consider it, quite simply, as a "toxic
drug that is not effective as a cancer treatment."
term "Laetrile" was coined by the father/son team of Ernest T. Krebs
Sr.., M.D., and E.T. Krebs Jr. research biochemist. It is a contraction of the
more formal name "LAEvo-mandeloniTRILE-glucoside." Yet over the past
40 years the chemical identity of Laetrile has changed, as the Merck Index
notes: ”The name amygdalin is
currently used interchangeably with Laetrile.... [amygdalin is the] most common
constituents of Laetrile® preparations." (2) Amygdalin is actually d-mandelontrile
bi-glucoside, equivalent to the Krebs' original Laetrile plus one extra sugar
amygdalin and the original Krebs' Laetrile (also called "sambunigrm")
are members of the class of beta-cyanogenetic glucosides, which includes others
such as prunasin, dhurrin, and linamarin. Also calling them "nitrilosides",
Krebs Jr. has defined them as "...water soluble, essentially non-toxic,
sugary compounds found in... plants, many of which are edible.... They comprise
molecules made of a sugar, hydrogen cyanide, a benzene ring or an acetone."
(1) Krebs considers the class of nitrilosides to collectively constitute
"vitamin B17." Krebs emphasizes the universality across the globe of
"nitriloside/B17" - containing plants: "There are approximately
14 naturally occurring nitrilosides distributed in over 1,200 species of
plants.... No area on the earth that supports vegetation lacks nitriloside-containing
plants.... From the nitriloside rich salmon-berry... growing on the Arctic
tundra and the arrow-grass growing in arctic marches and supplying the major
fodder for the caribou, to the cassava or manioc -the bread of the tropics -
plants extraordinarily rich in nitriloside, and serving as food for man and
animals, are found in abundance." (3)
Oke has noted that "Cyanogenetic glycosides [nitrilosides] have been found
in the following common vegetables: maize, sorghum, millet, field bean, lima
bean, kidney bean..., sweet potato, cassava, lettuce, linseed [flaxseed], almond
and seeds of lemons, limes, cherries, apples, apricots, prunes, plums and
pears." (4) Thus Krebs has argued that their widespread presence in foods
consumed by humans and animals all over the world argues against nitrilosides/laetriles
being seriously or inherently toxic. Krebs also believed this gives "laetriles"
the status of "accessory food factors," rather than their being a
"drug," alien to normal human metabolism.
amygdalin was first prepared in 1830 by the French scientists Roubiquet and
Bontron-Chariand. In 1837, the German scientists von Liebig and Woehier found
that amygdalin can be split by a specific enzyme into hydrogen cyanide,
benzaldehyde, and glucose. The first recorded use of "Laetrile" to
treat cancer was reported in 1845 by T. Inosmetzeff, a professor at the Imperial
University of Moscow. (5,6) A young male cancer patient of 20 received
approximately 46,000 mg of amygdalin over a period of 3 months, and was still
alive 3 years later. A women of 48, with extensive metastasis from a primary
right ovarian tumor, received varying amounts of amygdalin over a period of
years and had survived II years at the time of the report. No sustained
pharmacologic harm was seen with these patients. In the modern era Laetrile was
"rediscovered" in the 1940s by the Krebs. By the late 1940s - early
1950s, use of Laetrile to treat cancer had spread quietly around the world.
Early dosages were extremely modest - only 50 - 100 mg by intravenous injection,
with total patient dosage then seldom exceeding 2 gms. By the 1960s the Krebs
were recommending 30 gms total Laetrile dosage, spread over a 10-30 day
treatment course. (7) By the 1980-90s, intravenous dosages up to 9 gms, with
total patient dose reaching 2-300gms, was not uncommon. (8) Classical Laetrile
proponents, such as Krebs, Dean Burk, and P. Binzel, do not consider Laetrile a
literal cancer cure, however, anymore than insulin injections are a
"cure" for diabetes. Rather, Laetrile is considered a cancer control
which will need to be taken indefinitely, in oral form, after the original
"cancer crisis" is brought under control. This exactly parallels the
situation of vitamin deficiency
diseases, where intravenous injections may be used to bring a severe vitamin
deficiency disease (e.g. pellagra or beri-beri) under control, with
higher-than-normal oral doses needed indefinitely thereafter to prevent relapse,
The typical oral Laetrile dose used after intravenous injections is 1 to 2 gms/day.
(8) Yet Krebs suggested that 50-100 mg of Laetrile/day might suffice to prevent
cancer in normal healthy adults. (1)
"proof" of Laetrile's efficacy in preventing/controlling cancer has
come from 3 different sets of data: epidemiological, animal tests, and human
clinical use by experienced pro-laetrile doctors. The epidemiological evidence
for Laetrile is controversial, like all epidemiological evidence, and provides
only strong suggestions, not incontrovertible proof.
Krebs points out, "Tribes in the Karakonims of West Pakistan, [the Hunzas],
the aboriginal Eskimaux, tribes of South Africa and South America living on
native foods, the North American Indian in his native state, the Australian
aborigines and other native or so-called primitive peoples rely upon a diet
containing as much as 250 to 3000 mg of nitriloside in a daily ration.
Civilized, Westernized... man, on the other hand relies on a diet that probably
provides on average less than 2 mg nitriloside a day". (3) Among these
people, cancer tends to be rare compared to the high rates present in America
and Europe. For example, Sir Robert McCarrison,
nutritionist in the 1920s - 30s, failed to discover a single case of cancer
among the Hunzas during a 20 year period, while John dark, M.D., a later medical
missionary among the Hunza, also failed to find cancer among them. (3) The Hunza
diet is based in significant part upon the apricot kernel, a rich source of
Laetrile, which typically provides them with at least 150 - 250 mg
the Eskimaux living on their native diet, cancer was also so rare that it
prompted famed anthropologist/explorer V. Steffanson to write a book on the
subject: Cancer: Disease of Civilization? (9) Krebs notes that the
salmon-berry is a rich nitriloside source, and is used by traditional Eskimaux
to make pemmican, which is eaten year-round. The contents of caribou stomachs,
unusually rich in nitrilosides, are a prized delicacy among the Eskimaux. (3)
M. Navarro of Santo Tomas Univ. of Manila, was a world-famed oncologist who was
also an early Laetrile clinical pioneer. "By 1977 he had linked the low
incidence of cancer in the native populations of Mindanao [the Philippines] to
the continual ingestion of many sources of vitamin B17. That rate, about I per
100,000 [less than 1% of the U.S. cancer rate], is even smaller than the low
rate of cancer in the non-urban Filipino north, where generations of Filipinos
have subsisted on [nitriloside-rich] cassava, wild rice, wild beans, berries and
fruits of all kinds." (10)
a letter to Dean Burk, pro-laetrile head at that time of the Cytochemistry Dept.
of the NCI, Krebs wrote concerning North American Indians: "I have analyzed
from historical and anthropological records the nitriloside content of the diets
of... carious North American tribes.... Some of these tribes would ingest over
8,000 mg of vitamin B17 (nitriloside) a day. My data on the Modoc Indians are
particularly complete." (12) As an example of the low cancer incidence
among Indians eating their high "B17" native diet, Krebs cited a
report on the Navajo-Hopi Indians from JAMA. Feb. 5, 1949: "...the
doctors wondered if [the Indians' diet] had anything to do with the fact that
only 36 cases of malignant cancer were found out of 30,000 admissions to Ganado,
Arizona Mission Hospital... In the same population of white persons, the doctors
said that would have been about 1800." (12)
his preface to A. Berglas' book Cancer: Cause and Cure. medical
missionary Dr. Albert Schweitzer wrote that "On my arrival in Gabon
[Africa] in 1913, I was astonished to encounter no cases of cancer. I saw none
among the natives two hundred miles from the coast.... I can not, of course, say
positively that there was no cancer at all, but, like other frontier doctors, I
can only say that, if any cases existed they must have been quite rare. This
absence of cancer seemed to be due to the difference in nutrition of the natives
compared to the Europeans...." (13). Of course,
such high nitriloside
foods as cassava, millet, maize and sorghum are staples of the traditional
African diet. Cassava may contain from 225 to 1830 mg/kg of the nitriloside
world wide epidemiological picture is consistent.
Wherever "primitive peoples" eat their traditional natural
diet, their intake of nitrilosides is high, and their cancer incidence is low.
And when, as among many modern Eskimaux, they gain easy access -to and become
reliant upon the "civilized" Western diet of sugar, white flour, and
refined/preserved foods, their
cancer incidence shoots up and approximates the high incidence
people. ANIMAL LAETRILE TESTS
have been various animal studies that suggest an anti-cancer effect from
Laetrile. "...the SCIND Laboratories in California conducted several
experiments [with Laetrile].... In their second study on carcinoma of rats
(Walker 256), with amygdalin in doses of 500 milligrams per kilogram injected
intraperitoneally on days one, three and six after [transplanted] tumor take,
the following results were found:
(number of days)
60,60,60 (U.S SENATE, 1977:419)"
mean survival time of the control rats was thus 23 days. With the amygdalin-treated
rats, mean survival time was 38 days, i.e. a 70% increase over the controls. The
survival time of every Laetrile-treated animal was greater than that of every control animal.
a test by Dr. Paul Reitnauer, chief biochemist of the Manfred von Ardenne
Institute, Dresden (East Germany), 20 of 40 H-strain mice were given bitter
almonds in addition to their standard diet. Bitter almonds contain relatively
high levels of Laetrile. Fifteen days after initiation of this regimen, all 40
mice were inoculated with I million Ehriich ascites [cancer] cells. The 20
control mice lived an average of 21.9 days following this injection. The 20 mice
receiving the bitter almond supplement lived an average of 25.8 days, which was
statistically significant...." (14)
1977, Dr. Vern L. van Breeman of Salisbury State College, Maryland, reported
that the addition of apricot kernels [rich in Laetrile] to standard food in
pilot experiments with special strains of mice bred to develop breast cancer and
leukemia showed impressive differences both in terns of developing the disease
and increased survival times between the animals that [ate] the kernels and
those that did not. When he reported his early findings... seven of the animals
in the leukemia control group and five in the breast cancer [control] group had
died, while none of the mice on the kernels had. Ultimately only one of
the mammary cancer mice developed a slow-growing tumor, and, while the leukemia
results were less impressive in terms of total symptoms, leukemia-prone mice
that ate apricot kernels enjoyed life extensions up to 50% over what would
normally be expected." (10)
cancer researcher Kanematsu Sugiura (who had a 4-volume set of his collected
scientific papers published in 1965) performed three sets of experiments between
September 1972 and June 1973 "to determine the effects of amygdalin...upon
mice with spontaneous mammary tumors." In an internal report to his
colleagues at Sloan-Kettering Institute, he said that "The results clearly
show that amygdalin significantly inhibits the appearance of lung metastases in
mice bearing spontaneous mammary tumors and increases significantly the
inhibition of the growth of the primary tumor over the appearance of inhibition
in the untreated animals." (15)
are just some of the Laetrile animal studies yielding positive results, while
they hardly prove Laetrile to be a "cure" for cancer (which scientific
Laetrile proponents have never claimed it to be), they clearly evidence some
LAETRILE CLINICAL EXPERIENCE
1962 Dr. John Morrone reported his results from using Laetrile with 10 patients
suffering from "inoperable cancer," The treatments ranged from 4 to 43
weeks in length, and a range of 9 to 133 gms Laetrile was given through
Morrone concluded his report: "The
use of Laetrile... in
10 cases of inoperable cancer, all with metastases,
provided dramatic relief of pain, discontinuance of narcotics, control of
fetor [stench from a tumor], improved appetite, and reduction of adenopathy
[swollen lymph nodes]. The results suggest regression of the malignant
lesion.... No other side effects [other than transient episodes of low blood
pressure] were noted except slight itching and a sensation of heat in the
affected areas, which was transitory in all cases." (16)
1994, P.E. Binzel published his results from treating cancer patients with
Laetrile between 1974 and 1991. He used a combination of intravenous and oral
Laetrile. Intravenous doses started with 3 gms and worked up to 9 gms. After a
period of months, oral Laetrile, I gm at bedtime, was begun in place of the
injections. Binzel also used various nutrient supplements and pancreatic
enzymes, as well as a low animal-protein, no junk-food diet as part of his
regimen. Out of a series of 180 patients with primary cancer (non-metastasized,
confined to a single organ or tissue), 138 were still alive in 1991 when he
compiled his treatment results. At that time, 58 of the patients had been
followed for 2 to 4 years, while 80 had a medical follow-up from 5 to 18 years.
Of the 42 patients who had died by 1991, 23 died from their cancers, 12 from
unrelated causes, and 7 died of "cause unknown."(8)
his metastatic cancer patients, 32 of 108 died from their disease, while 6 died
of unrelated causes, and 9 died of "cause unknown." Of his 61 patients
still alive in 1991, 30 had a follow-up between 2 and 4 years, while 31 had been
followed for 5 to 18 years. (8)
results are impressive. Some of the individual patients discussed in his book
were still alive (and well!) 15-18 years after their initial Laetrile treatment.
Binzel also notes that none of the cancer diagnoses were made by him (a
small town, "family doctor") - all patients had diagnoses from other
physicians. Many had already suffered the ravages of standard "cut-bum-and
poison" (surgery/X-ray/chemotherapy) medicine before being given up as
hopeless cases by orthodox doctors.
physicians who have worked with Laetrile
have also reported favorable results using it. Thus Manuel
Navarro, M.D., former professor of medicine and surgery at the Univ. of Santo
Tomas in Manilla wrote in 1971: "1... have specialized in oncology [the
study of tumors] for the past eighteen years. For the same number of years I
have been using Laetrile-amygdalin in the treatment of my cancer patients.
During this eighteen year period I have treated a total of over five hundred
patients with Laetrile-amygdalin by various routes of administration, including
the oral and the I.V. The majority of my patients receiving Laetrile-amygdalin
have been in a terminal state when treatment with this material commenced.
is my carefully considered clinical judgment, as a practicing oncologist and
researcher in this field, that I have obtained most significant and encouraging
results with the use of Laetrile-amygdalin in the treatment of terminal cancer
patients, and that these results are comparable or superior to the results I
have obtained with the use of the more toxic standard cytotoxic agents."
of the physicians whose anti-cancer programs are detailed in Burton Goldberg's
1116 page Alternative Medicine Definitive Guide to Cancer also report
positive Laetrile results as part of their cancer treatment programs. Robert
Atkins, M.D., notes that "Amygdalin appears to neutralize the oxidative
cancer-promoting compounds such as free radicals.... It's just one more key
component for keeping cancer from growing or spreading. Contrary to what people
have said about Laetrile... it should be considered an effective, entirely '
safe treatment for all types of cancer." (17)
Emesto Contreras has used Laetrile as a cornerstone of his cancer practice since
1963. He remarks that "For the prevention of cancer and the maintenance of
remission, there is nothing as effective as Laetrile.... Its nontoxicity permits
its use indefinitely while surgery, radiation and chemotherapy can only be
administered for a limited time.... the majority of cancers that occur more
frequently, such as cancers of the lung, breast, colon, ovaries, stomach,
esophagus, prostate, and the lymphomas, are much helped by Laetrile." (17)
Michael Schachter, who has used Laetrile for 20 years with cancer patients,
remarks that "As part of a comprehensive health-enhancing program,
amygdalin is a useful natural; substance for fighting cancer." (17) Dr.
Schachter recommends using cysteine (N-acetyl cysteine is a better-absorbed form
of cysteine) along with amygdalin, to maximize the body's ability to detoxify
any cyanide released from the Laetrile. (17)
Douglas Brodie also uses Laetrile to treat his cancer patients. "After
years of observing patients using amygdalin, we can say with complete assurance
that it is neither toxic nor worthless.... Nor do we find it to be a cure or
panacea for cancer. The experience of our clinic... is that amygdalin has the
ability to improve the patient's sense of well-being, relieve the pain of
cancer, and reduce the requirement for pain medicine," (17)
Hans Nieper is a world famous oncologist and the developer of the standard
anti-cancer cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide. In 1970 he co-authored a brief
paper on Laetrile with Dean Burk, in which they stated that "...in the
treatment of cancer, the active principle of nitrilosides is to be used mainly
in prophylaxis [prevention] and early protective therapy.... On the other hand,
the complete atoxicity [lack of toxicity] of this method of treatment, which is
maybe nothing else but a rediscovered natural principle, permits the unlimited
use of this substance." (18) In 1972 Nieper told reporters while in the
U.S.: "After more than 20 years of such specialized work, I have found the
non-toxic Nitrilosides - that is, Laetrile - far superior to any other known
cancer treatment or preventive. In my opinion it is the only existing
possibility for the ultimate control of cancer." (11)
should thus be clear that among doctors who have worked with Laetrile, its
anti-cancer effect is highly regarded.
of epidemiological evidence, animal studies and informed clinical opinion
supports the belief that Laetrile has significant anti-cancer effect. This is
perhaps why the anti-laetrile medical establishment has focused on scaring
people away from Laetrile use through the "great cyanide scare."
14 nitrilosides are 3-part molecules: sugar, cyanide, and either benzaldehyde or
acetone. (3) It is thus literally true to say that Laetrile contains cyanide, a
deadly poison. Yet it is also true to say that table salt, sodium chloride,
contains the deadly poison, chlorine. Under normal conditions, the chlorine in
salt and the cyanide in Laetrile is tightly bound, in no danger of suddenly
called "beta-glucosidase" and "beta-glucuronidase" can
liberate the cyanide from nitrilosides. In the 1940s Fishman and Aniyan
discovered that malignant cancerous tissue contains significantly more beta-glucuronidase
than normal tissue (19,20,21,22): "Tissue excised from malignant neoplasms
[cancers] of various organs, including breast, uterus, stomach,... abdominal
wall, and esophagus were found to contain 100 to 3600 percent more glucuronidase
activity than uninvolved adjacent tissue. Metastases to lymph nodes from cancers
originating in various organs... contained B-glucuronidase in higher
concentrations than the uninvolved lymph nodes." (19) "...elevated B-glucuronidase
is probably characteristic of malignant cells." (20)
addition to their high levels of B-glucuronidase, malignant lesions are
characterized by a generally profound deficiency of... rhodanese, as was
reported by Homberger, Mendel, Rodney and Bowman. Rosenthal reported an 80%
decrease in rhodanese in [cancerous] liver tissue, and a similar decrease was
found in the leukemic invasion of tissues." (7)
two properties of cancer cells - an "excess" of Laetrile-splitting
glucuronidase and a deficiency of cyanide-detoxifying rhodanese - are presumed
by laetrilists to provide the explanation of both why Laetrile kills cancer
cells, and why it is mostly harmless to normal cells. Circulating Laetrile will
be preferentially split by cancer cells into cyanide, benzaldehyde and sugar.
They will them be poisoned, since cancer cells lack (relatively) the cyanide -
detoxifying enzyme rhodanese. If some cyanide "spills out" from the
cancer cells, adjacent normal cells will then be able to detoxify it through
their rhodanese enzymes. As O.L. Oke notes, "If detoxification is equal to
absorption, no death [or injury] occurs no matter the amount [of cyanide
enzyme rhodanese combines cyanide with sulfur (from the amino acid cystine) to
yield the relatively harmless substance "thiocyanate." As Oke notes,
"[rhodanese] is widely distributed in all the tissues with the highest
concentrations in the liver. Detoxification can therefore take place in all
parts of the body but with the liver as the chief site... When hydrocyanic acid
[cyanide] is converted to thiocyanic acid [thiocyanate] there is a 200-fold
reduction in toxicity." (4)
beta-glucosidase or beta-glucuronidase
splits Laetrile, it releases benzaldehyde (BA) as well as cyanide. Various human
studies have used BA itself as an anti-cancer drug (31,32,33,34), Kochi et al
noted that "Toxic effects,
or biochemical disturbances, were not seen during long-term successive
administration of [BA]," (32) They reported 19/57 inoperable terminal
cancer patients "responded completely," while 10 patients responded
partially (i.e. greater than 50% tumor reduction). (32) Tatsumura and colleagues
used a mean total dose of 393 gms of BG, a BA derivative that is believed to
convert to BA in the body, to achieve a positive response rate in 10/24 cancer
patients. "Careful monitoring showed no toxic action of BG at these large
doses. Complete necrotic liquefaction of tumour, without any damage to
surrounding tissue, was seen in 2 of 3 cases in which histological [microscopic
tissue] examination was feasible." (34)
Burk declared in 1971 at the Seventh International Congress of Chemotherapy in
Prague: "In vitro tests with Ehriich Ascites carcinoma
[a type of cancer cell culture] revealed that, where cyanide alone killed one
percent of the cells and [BA] alone killed twenty percent, a combination of the
two Was effective against all the cells. Amygdalin with glucosidase... added
also succeeded in killing 100 percent of the ascites tumor cells, due to the
freeing of the same 2 chemicals." (11) Thus Laetrile may actually kill
cancer cells through a synergistic cytotoxic reaction between its two key
breakdown products, cyanide and benzaldehyde.
SAFETY OF LAETRILE
human and animal data have shown the realtive non-toxicity of laetrile. A 1980
report stated that "Amygdalin given to male Swiss-Webster mice...at
3g/kg...was able to protect against the diabetogenic action of alloxan...amygdalin..•can
be tolerated by experimental animals at rather high doses." (26)
a series of tests on adult mice, Dr. Dean Burk reported that they could live in
perfect health to extreme old age when their normal diet consisted of fifty
percent defatted apricot kemels...[which] provided each mouse with a whopping
one-hundred and twenty-five milligrams of vitamin B17 per day." (11) As
noted earlier, J. Morrone in his 1962 paper specifically commented on the
absence of side-effects from Laetrile, while
Binzel makes no mention of toxic side-effects among his patients. Drs. Atkins, Contreras, Brodie, and Nieper previously cited
also specifically referred to Laetrile's absence of toxicity.
one record of Laetrile's high degree of safety, when properly used, was provided
by a group of Laetrile opponents, led by Dr. Charles Moertal. In 1981 in JAMA,
Moertal and co-workers wrote: "In our study, intravenous amygdalin was
found to be free of clinical toxicity and no cyanide could be detected in the
blood...In summation, the administration of amygdalin according to the dosages
and schedules we employed seems to be free of significant side-effects. This
conclusion appears to be validated by early observations in phase II study of 44
Mayo Clinic patients receiving intravenous amygdalin therapy and 37 receiving
oral therapy who have not experienced any symptomatic toxic reaction." (27)
Yet in an obvious display of their anti-laetrile bias Moertal et al concluded
the one paragraph summary abstract on the first page of their paper with the
statement "A definite hazard of cyanide toxic reaction must be assumed,
however....," even though they state plainly in the conclusion of their
report that they didn't find any Laetrile toxicity!
1960 study used sodium cyanide as a cancer drug with some degree of success in
both humans and animals. When Smith and his colleagues treated cancer patients
with an intravenous cyanide infusion, they reported that "The recovery and
convalescence of these patients treated with sodium cyanide was
indistinguishable from that of patients who had not received cyanide. There was
no observed delayed clinical toxicity. All patients recovered promptly from the
cyanide treatment and no latent or residual effects could be noted." (28)
This is further evidence that Laetrile's "timed release,"
"special delivery to cancer cells" action should generally be of low
toxicity, since sodium cyanide instantly dissociates into free cyanide in
tissues, unlike Laetrile.
lengths that Laetrile opponents would go to in an attempt to discredit Laetrile
through the "cyanide toxicity scare" was illustrated by the infamous
1978 "Laetrile toxicity Studies in Dogs," (29) 10 dogs were force fed
a special mixture of 1-4 gms Laetrile combined with a finely ground raw almond
paste/water mixture, which had been pre-incubated at body temperature in blood
bags for 15-60 minutes. Almonds are one of the highest beta-glucuronidase (i.e.
Laetrile cyanide-releasing) - containing foods known. Incubating Laetrile with
an almond/water paste at body temperature for 15-60 minutes will thus serve to
pre-release the cyanide normally "locked up" in Laetrile. Thus the
dogs were force-fed large quantities of free hydrogen cyanide! Not surprisingly,
four of the dogs were neurologically impaired, while 6 died. What this
experiment proved is that large amounts of hydrogen cyanide, force-fed, are
toxic. This is the basis of the so-called 'gas chamber" used to execute
criminals in some American states, although there the hydrogen cyanide is
produced by dropping potassium cyanide pellets into acid. The experimental
results merely duplicated, in a roundabout way, the efficacy of the gas chamber.
They did not prove anything about the normal action of Laetrile, taken
intravenously or on an empty stomach, which is the standard protocol for
Laetrile use. The dog experiment was like trying to prove that all cars are
inherently deadly, on the grounds that everyone who drives a car without airbags
at 120 miles per hour into a brick wall without wearing a seatbelt will be
protective mechanism (aside from rhodanese) humans have when taking Laetrile
orally (on an empty stomach) is through the interaction of cyanide with stomach
hydrochloric acid. O.L. Oke points out that "Horses and hogs, like human
beings,... have only one stomach which is strongly acid due to the presence of
hydrochloric acid. This acid reacts with hydrocyanic acid [cyanide] to form much
less toxic substances like acetic acid [vinegar] and ammonium chloride thereby
causing an almost immediate detoxification as soon as the hydrocyanic acid is
liberated from the glucoside [i.e. Laetrile]." (4)
Laetrile is used therapeutically, it is usually given either intravenously, at
doses from one to nine gms, or orally, at doses of 500mg, two to four times
daily. To maximize the safety and effectiveness of oral Laetrile, it is imperative
that it be taken on an empty stomach, either two hours before or three hours
after a meal. Never combine oral Laetrile with raw almonds or raw apricot
kernels, or raw vegetable or bean sprouts, as these are high in the
cyanide-releasing beta-glucosidase enzyme. According to Krebs (the
"father" of Laetrile), approximately 50-200 mg/day of Laetrile, taken
like vitamins (which Krebs believed Laetrile to be) on an open-ended, on-going
basis, will provide a cancer-preventive effect. Assuming one has not eaten for
at least three hours before retiring, taking a small Laetrile preventive dose at
bedtime may be the best strategy. Laetrile ingestion may occasionally cause a
temporary low blood pressure reaction due to formation of thiocyanate, a
powerful blood pressure lowering agent. (30)
Krebs, E.T. Jr. (1970) "The nitrilosides (vitamin B-17): Their nature,
occurence and metabolic significance" J Appi Nutr 22: 75-86.
2) Budavari, S., ed. The Merck Index. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck
Research Laboratories. P.IOI.
3) Krebs, E.T. Jr. "The Nitrilosides in plants and animals," in Vitamin
B17. Culbert, M. New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1974. P. 145-64.
4) Oke, O.L. "The role of hydrocyanic acid in nutrition," in World
Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. II, Bourne, G.H„ ed. Basel: S.
Karger, 1969. P. 170-98.
5) Inoserntzeff, T. (1845) Gazette Medicale de Paris, 13: 577-82.
6) Inoserntzeff, T. (1846) Jour Chirurgie und Augenheilkunde, 35: 7-28.
7) Krebs, E.T. Jr. "Nitrilosides (laetriles)," in Vitamin B17
op. cit. P.189-204.
8) Binzel, P.E. Alive and Well. Westlake Village, CA: American Media,
9) Steffanson, V. Cancer: Disease of Civilization? NYC: Hill and Wang,
10) Culbert, M. What the Medical Establishment Won't Tell You That Could Save
Your Life. Virginia Beach: Donning Co., 1983.
11) Griffin, G.E. World without Cancer. Westlake Village, CA: American
12) Griffin, G.E. Private Papers Pertaining to Laetrile. Westlake
Village, CA: American Media, 1997. 13) Berglas, A. Caassn Cause and
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articles by James South
the brain booster
3. Depression with
alternative antiaging treatments
5. Excitotoxins, the
ultimate brain slayer
the ultimate anti-aging drug?
9. James South's
the oldest smart drug?
- the antiaging neuro-energizer
reviewing the smart drugs.
14 piracetam - the original
15. Pregnenolone the role
of the "happy" hormone
the oldest smart drug?